How do I jump further in the long jump?
What are the fundamentals of long jumping? What are the principles to follow when jumping further in the long jump? Before analyzing Carl Lewis' jump (8m91 CM Tokyo 1991), it is important to remember that a good technique, regardless of the level of the athlete, must respect the following biomechanical principles:
1- The forces are properly transmitted on a sheathed body: foot/pelvis/shoulder alignment,
2- It is the ground that restores strength: you have to press the ground,
3- The muscle acts as a spring: stretching before tension,
4- The pulse corresponds to a deviation of trajectory: ahead of the supports, take-off angle 18 to 20 degrees,
5- The trajectory is all the more effective if there is no break in the acceleration: no blockage, put flat foot on the last 2 supports,
6- The range of a parable is proportional to the square of the flight speed: high terminal rate in acceleration, minimize loss of speed at the pulse,
7- Mass inertia causes rotations to accelerate or decelerate: the legs and arms balance the suspended body.
Carl Lewis – World Championships – Tokyo 1991
Here is the jump of C. Lewis in video (real speed and slow motion) and his analysis in kinogram (he shows us the last 2 supports, the suspension and the return).
Of course, M Powell won the title and above all took the RM with a leap at 8m95 but C Lewis managed the feat in this contest to jump 4 times at more than 8m80! This reveals exceptional technical mastery.
The penultimate support (photo 24)
. tension by a knee pointed downwards,
. the flat-foot pass causes the centre of gravity to be lowered,
. we must avoid deceleration and seek to increase the terminal rate,
. Photo 25: The trunk stays straight and the call leg (right) will come back shaving with knee high to increase the terminal rhythm.
. the foot is armed avoiding blocking and loss of speed (photo 26),
. Photo 27: The foot quickly lands in front of the pelvis and the call leg is stretched (stretching)
. the flat-footed passage of the free leg caused his delay and will promote his return to the front
Tensioning (photo 28)
. alignment of foot/pelvis/shoulder; free leg (left) buttock heel,
. the spring is pressed, the pelvis is strong and the jumper resists pressure to distort the trajectory of the centre of gravity.
Pulse (photo 29)
. removal occurs after the pelvis passes over the support,
. alignment of foot/pelvis/shoulders,
. the knee of the free leg is pointed forward
. the call foot unfolds completely and the arms participate in the balance of the body.
Photo 30: The jumper enters the jump on his speed; The left free leg prepares the chisel; always arm/leg synchronicity.
Photo 31: The full thrust causes a heel-butt return of the call leg. The arms trigger a rotation that will oppose the forward rotation caused to the pulse. The trunk remains straight, respecting alignments and looking to grow and stretch.
. Photo 32: The knee of the pulse leg (right) comes back high; always the right trunk and this arm/leg synchronicity,
. Photo 33: the double scissor is chained, back buttock heel of the free leg (left); respect for the stretched right leg and arm alignments,
. Photo 34: The trunk tilts backwards to facilitate the passage of the landing gear; arms and legs balance the body around the centre of gravity
Brought it back
. Photo 35: The knee of the free leg (left) comes back high; the pulse leg begins its return under the buttocks,
. Photo 36: Both knees are high if possible above the pelvis line; The trunk is straight.
. Photo 37: Feet lay far in front of the pelvis; the legs bend so that the pelvis takes the place of the feet that will be thrown forward.
. Photo 38: The pelvis takes the place of the feet,
. the trunk stays straight and the feet chase sand forward.
These fabulous performances could only be achieved thanks to an extraordinary race of momentum. It is she who determines the final result with of course the mastery of the last 3 supports, the suspension and the return which are the consequences.